Tapir calf with watermelonlike coat being fed at the San Diego Zoo

first_imgTapir calf with watermelon-like coat being fed at the San Diego Zoo Categories: Local San Diego News Tags: San Diego Zoo Updated: 3:40 PM KUSI Newsroom, June 27, 2018 Posted: June 27, 2018 FacebookTwitter 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek  . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO (KUSI) – The San Diego Zoo welcomed its first endangered Baird’s tapir calf in 30 years, the organization announced today. Baird’s tapirs are herbivorous mammals similar in shape to pigs, but with short trunks. Calf coats also feature spots and stripes, like the surface of a watermelon, that serve as camouflage in the dispersed light of forest floor habitats.First-time mom Luna gave birth June 13 after a 13-month gestation period, though she hasn’t provided nursing opportunities for the newborn. With no explanation for Luna’s hesitance — which also happens among other species in the animal kingdom — staff stepped in to rear the calf to ensure consistent feeding and strong health. The calf’s birth and upbringing is a valuable research opportunity, animal care manager Matt Akel said.“Animal care and veterinary staff performed ultrasounds, using protective contact, for months leading up to the calf’s birth, to identify milestones in Luna’s pregnancy and provide useful information for future pregnancies of this endangered species,” he said. “The last endangered Baird’s calf born at the zoo was in 1988, so we’re thrilled with the arrival of this male — and happy to provide him with optimal care, since mom wasn’t successful.” The calf, which weighed 22 pounds at birth, receives five bottle feedings per day. Keepers initially milked Luna to provide the calf with necessary nutrition. Now, the animal’s diet is supplemented with goat’s milk and a protein mixture. Luna and the newborn are able to interact, and staff are monitoring both animals to see if full reintroduction may eventually be possible.The calf will begin to lose his distinctive markings after a few months, eventually resembling a miniature adult before he is a year old. Visitors can see the animal in a mixed-species zoo habitat that also features capybaras and guanacos. Native to Mexico and Central America, the calves are key to maintaining biological diversity in tropical forests, according to the zoo.Tapirs disperse seeds and keep forest floors fertilized, which facilitates growth of new plants that provide food and shelter. Habitat loss and hunting have contributed to an estimated 50-percent population decline over the last 30 years. The zoo participates in a handful of projects to maintain a genetically viable species population and prevent extinction.Officials work with the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Tapir Specialist Group and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums on its Baird’s tapir Species Survival Plan. KUSI Newsroom last_img read more

Time Inc Digital Revenues Up 20 Million Offsetting Weakness in Print

first_imgNEW YORK — Roughly 40 people — Time Inc. publishers, presidents, editors, and PR directors along with members of the press—gathered on the second floor of the Time and Life Building Wednesday for Time Inc.’s “Digital Showcase,” where Time Inc. EVP John Squires told the crowd that the division’s digital revenues were up $20 million year over year. That growth is led mostly by Sports Illustrated and CNNMoney, he said, with digital revenue contributing about 15 and 20 percent to their respective bottom lines. Despite the digital revenue growth, Time Inc.’s overall first quarter revenues were relatively flat, falling slightly from $1.048 billion in first quarter 2007 to $1.045 billion this year. Quick acceleration online is the way the company is moving, Squires said, echoing Time Warner CEO Jeff Bewkes’ comments during a quarterly conference call that digital growth rates for the company’s magazines could “overcome what may be the flatness in print over time.” ‘Upshot’ Time Inc. saw a “big upshot” from online video at the end of last year and early this year, Squires said, which contributed to overall digital growth. To date, CNNMoney is seeing just under 19 million video streams a month, up from an average of 1 million last year, and is looking to compete with television networks like CNBC, maybe more so than its online counterparts. According to Nielsen VideoCensus from March, the title’s online video platform makes up 54 percent of its entire category which includes MSN Money, Forbes.com, TheStreet.com and Wall Street Journal Digital. Its competitive advantage, according to CNNMoney.com’s SVP Jonathan Shar, is its investment in a twelve-person team dedicated to video production, many of whom held high-level positions in television. The videos, in fact, are often streamed on CNN, contributing to the network’s money and finance coverage. “As video distribution online grows, consumers expectations will rise and we have to be ready to play in that world,” said Squires. ‘Hair Tool’ Success InStyle.com has seen monthly video streams rise from 70,000 in February to now more than 600,000 and is planning to launch a redesigned video channel in the second quarter 2008. Other plans for InStyle digital include an upcoming relaunch of InStyleWeddings.com and a new, sponsored mobile WAP application launching in July 2008. Its popular Hollywood Hair Tool—which allows users to virtually try on celebrity hair styles—will be joined by a similar tool for makeup in June. When the hair tool launched in August of last year, overall page views for the site increased within two months from 38 milion to 52 million.last_img read more

Senate Easily Approves Defense Bill

first_imgThe Senate easily passed the fiscal 2017 defense authorization bill 85-13 on Tuesday after another skirmish on the floor blocked most amendments from gaining votes.Action stalled because senators who were unable to secure votes for their favored amendments blocked the chamber from considering other proposals. Armed Services Chairman John McCain (R-Ariz.) criticized his colleagues ahead of the vote, suggesting some were taking a “their way or the highway” approach.“As happy as I am about the size of the vote, we left out some very important amendments,” McCain said, reported the Hill. “When we take up a bill of this significance, not every senator can have his or her way.”Lawmakers adopted one amendment Tuesday permitting DOD to use Russian-made rocket engines to lift military and intelligence satellites into space through 2022.With the $602 billion measure cleared by the Senate, the two chambers will begin talks to reconcile their competing versions immediately, McCain said. He would not commit to reaching a deal on a conference report before Congress adjourns for a lengthy recess in July, but said that would be the goal.The annual defense policy bill will need to overcome a number of hurdles before becoming law, according to the story. The Office of Management and Budget has threatened to veto the two versions over a variety of provisions, including language eliminating the undersecretary of defense for acquisition, technology and logistics; limits on the size of the National Security Council staff; restrictions on the transfer of detainees from Guantánamo; language rejecting the administration’s request for a BRAC round in 2019; and a move allocating $18 billion from the overseas contingency operations account to the base budget. Dan Cohen AUTHORlast_img read more

Garmins new Fenix 6 GPS watch sports solar charging to extend battery

first_img HP Laptop 15t Value: $520 (save $780) Now playing: Watch this: See It The Cheapskate The best smartwatches and fitness trackers for new graduates Share your voice $520 at HP Sarah Tew/CNET $261 at Daily Steals via Google Express Turo is kind of like Uber meets Airbnb: You borrow someone’s car, but you do all the driving. I’ve used it many times and found it a great alternative to traditional car-rental services — in part because you get to choose exactly the vehicle you want (not just, say, “midsize”) and in part because you can often do pickup and dropoff right outside baggage claim.Between now and Sept. 1, the first 300 people to check out can get $30 off any Turo rental with promo code LDW30. Recently updated to include digital-photo-frame capabilities, the Lenovo Smart Clock brings Google Assistant goodness to your nightstand. It’s a little smaller than the Amazon Echo Show 5, but also a full $30 less (and tied with Prime Day pricing) during this Best Buy Labor Day sale. An Echo Dot makes a fine match for any Fire edition TV, because you can use the latter to say things like, “Alexa, turn on the TV.” Right now, the 24-inch Insignia Fire TV Edition starts at just $100, while the 32-inch Toshiba Fire TV Editions is on sale for $130. Just add any Fire TV Edition to your cart, then add a third-gen Echo Dot, and presto: The latter is free. Wearable Tech Post a comment Sarah Tew/CNET Spotify and most other streaming services rely on compressed audio, which robs the listener of full fidelity. Enter Tidal, the only “major” service that delivers lossless audio — meaning at least on par with CD quality, if not better. Want to see (er, hear) the difference for yourself? Grab this excellent extended trial while you can. It’s just $6 for three months, and it’s good for up to six listeners. 0 $999 Turo: Save $30 on any car rental I thought this might be a mistake, but, no, the weirdly named HP Laptop 15t Value is indeed quite the value at this price. Specs include an Intel Core i7 processor, 12GB of RAM, a 256GB solid-state drive and a 15.6-inch display. However, I strongly recommend paying an extra $50 to upgrade that display to FHD (1,920×1,080), because you’re not likely to be happy with the native 1,366×768 resolution. 6 Amazon Garmin,I’m shocked — shocked! — to learn that stores are turning Labor Day into an excuse to sell stuff. Wait — no, I’m not. As much as I respect the original intent of the holiday (which became official back in 1894), to most of us, it’s just a bonus day off — one that’s blissfully tacked onto a weekend. So, yeah, stores; go ahead, run your sales. I’m listening. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Labor Day doesn’t bring out bargains to compete with the likes of Black Friday (which will be here before you know it), but there are definitely some sales worth your time.For example:We’ve rounded up the best Labor Day mattress deals.We’ve also gathered the best Labor Day laptop deals at Best Buy.Be sure to check out Amazon’s roughly three dozen Labor Day deals on TVs and audio. Google Express is having a big sale as well, one that includes deals on game consoles, AirPods, iPhones, laptops and more.Below I’ve rounded up a handful of individual items I consider to be the cream of the crop, followed by a handy reference guide to other Labor Day sales. Keep in mind, of course, that products may sell out at any time, even if the sale itself is still running. Note that CNET may get a share of revenue from the sale of the products featured on this page. $60 at Best Buy Comments Best Buy Rylo $6 at Tidal $299 at Amazon DJI’s answer to GoPro’s action cameras is rugged little model that’s shockproof, dustproof and waterproof down to 11 meters. It normally runs $350, but this deal drops it to $261 when you apply promo code 19LABOR10 at checkout. Preview • iPhone XS is the new $1,000 iPhone X Sarah Tew/CNET See at Turo Though not technically a Labor Day sale, it’s happening during Labor Day sale season — and it’s too good not to share. Nationwide Distributors, via Google Express, has just about the best AirPods deal we’ve seen (when you apply promo code ZBEDWZ at checkout). This is for the second-gen AirPods with the wireless charging case. Can’t imagine these will last long at this price, so if you’re interested, act fast. Lenovo 130-15AST 15.6-inch laptop: $210 (save $90) Garmin Vivosport melds the fitness band with the smartwatch Read Google Home Hub review 17 Photos hereO GPS Watch $90 at Daily Steals via Google Express See at Amazon Best laptops for college students: We’ve got an affordable laptop for every student. Best live TV streaming services: Ditch your cable company but keep the live channels and DVR. Apple AirPods with Wireless Charging Case: $155 (save $45) $59 at eBay Sprint Sarah Tew/CNET Turo Share your voice What’s cooler: A snapshot of a firework exploding in front of you, or full 360-degree video of all the fireworks and all the reactions to seeing them? Oooh, ahhh, indeed. At $250, the compact Rylo dual-lens camera is selling for its lowest price yet. And for an extra $50, you can get the bundle that includes the waterproof housing.This deal runs through Sept. 3; it usually costs $500. $999 Tidal 3-month family subscription: $5.99 (save $54) Boost Mobile Apple iPhone XS Lenovo Smart Clock: $59.99 (save $20) TVs Speakers Mobile Accessories Cameras Laptops Automobiles Smart Speakers & Displays Read the Rylo camera preview $999 The Fenix 6 series starts at $599. Garmin Garmin on Thursday introduced its new Fenix 6 series of multisport GPS watches. The watches in the collection have Garmin’s largest round display, a rugged design and features like Power Manager for longer battery life. The Fenix 6X Pro Solar also offers solar charging, with a transparent solar charging lens that can use the sun’s energy to extend battery life. Garmin says the battery on the Fenix 6X Pro Solar, in smartwatch mode, can last for 21 days, plus an additional three days when utilizing the solar charging. It has a 1.4-inch display, which Garmin says is 36% bigger than previous Fenix 5X watches.The Fenix 6 and 6X models appear to be largely the same, but with the 6X having a 1.4-inch display and the 6 with a 1.3-inch display. Sapphire editions are also available for these models, along with new nylon QuickFit bands and silicone color options.All of the watches come with topographic maps, ski maps for over 2,000 resorts, and maps of 41,000 golf courses, Garmin said. The Fenix 6 watches can also store up to 2,000 songs and come with Garmin Pay. In addition, the watches track heart rate, as well as underwater heart rate for swimming, and have a Body Battery energy monitoring feature. Garmin says Body Battery gathers data from stress, heart rate variability, sleep and activity to show your body’s energy level and help you decide when to schedule workouts and rest times. The Fenix 6 watches start at $599, with the final price depending on the straps and finishes you pick. The Fenix 6X Pro Solar starts at $999. Tags Chris Monroe/CNET The problem with most entry-level laptops: They come with mechanical hard drives. That makes for a mighty slow Windows experience. This Lenovo model features a 128GB solid-state drive, so it should be pretty quick to boot and load software, even with its basic processor. Plus, it has a DVD-burner! That’s not something you see in many modern laptops, especially at this price. Mentioned Above Apple iPhone XS (64GB, space gray) See It $210 at Best Buy JBL Soundgear wearable speaker: $90 (save $160) Formerly known as the Google Home Hub, Google’s Nest Hub packs a wealth of Google Assistant goodness into a 7-inch screen. At $59, this is within a buck of the best price we’ve seen. It lists for $129 and sells elsewhere in the $89-to-$99 range.This is one item of many available as part of eBay’s Labor Day Sale (which, at this writing, doesn’t specifically mention Labor Day, but that’s how it was pitched to us). 1:51 Preview • Other Labor Day sales you should check out Best Buy: In addition to some pretty solid MacBook deals that have been running for about a week already, Best Buy is offering up to 40% off major appliances like washers, dryers and stoves. There are also gift cards available with the purchase of select appliances. See it at Best BuyDell: Through Aug. 28, Dell is offering an extra 12% off various laptops, desktops and electronics. And check back starting Aug. 29 for a big batch of Labor Day doorbusters. See it at DellGlassesUSA: Aug. 29 – Sept. 3 only, you can save 65% on all frames with promo code labor65. See it at GlassesUSALenovo: The tech company is offering a large assortment of deals and doorbusters through Labor Day, with the promise of up to 56% off certain items — including, at this writing, the IdeaPad 730S laptop for $700 (save $300).See it at LenovoLensabl: Want to keep the frames you already love and paid for? Lensabl lets you mail them in for new lenses, based on your prescription. From now through Sept. 2 only, you can save 20% on the blue light-blocking lens option with promo code BLOCKBLUE. See it at LensablSears: Between now and Sept. 7, you can save up to 40% on appliances (plus an additional 10% if you shop online), up to 60% on mattresses, up to 50% on Craftsman products and more. The store is also offering some fairly hefty cashback bonuses. See it at SearsMore to come! Note: This post was published previously and is continuously updated with new information.CNET’s Cheapskate scours the web for great deals on tech products and much more. For the latest deals and updates, follow the Cheapskate on Facebook and Twitter. Questions about the Cheapskate blog? Find the answers on our FAQ page, and find more great buys on the CNET Deals page. See It $999 Google Nest Hub: $59 (save $70) Free Echo Dot with an Insignia or Toshiba TV (save $50) Angela Lang/CNET CNET may get a commission from retail offers. Rylo 5.8K 360 Video Camera: $250 (save $250) See it Read DJI Osmo Action preview $155 at Google Express Read the AirPods review Use promo code 19LABOR10 to get an unusually good deal on JBL’s interesting hybrid product — not quite headphones, and not quite a traditional speaker, but something you wear like neckphones to listen to music on the go. Tags Read Lenovo Smart Clock review DJI Osmo Action camera: $261 (save $89) Review • iPhone XS review, updated: A few luxury upgrades over the XRlast_img read more

Dr Reddys leads Indian charge of 130 billion Chinese pharma market stocks

first_imgRaghavendra NDr Reddy’s Laboratories is leading an Indian charge of the $130 billion Chinese pharma market, which is the world’s second largest. The likely liberalisation of the market by the Chinese regulator CFDA will benefit Indian pharma companies that have a solid presence in China, which is the world’s second largest pharma market, a report by Edelweiss Group says.Dr Reddy’s, which maintains a robust presence in China through a joint venture, is evolving a strategic plan to increase its revenue from the current $100 million. The company plans to achieve this by introducing new products and including more segments.The market has responded positively to the report with pharma stocks continuing their strong rally in the National Stock Exchange (NSE). Nifty Pharma sectoral benchmark hit a high of 9,278.70 after opening at 9,193.30. The index that benefited from the strong showing of Glenmark, Lupin and Aurobindo Pharma closed at about 9,263, up about 83 points or 0.91 per cent. Dr Reddy’s surged to an intraday high of 2792.55 from the previous close of 2765.20 to close 4.80 or 0.17 per cent up at 2,770.The company will strengthen its presence by scaling up the joint venture business and increasing the number of “dossier submissions and entries into new therapeutic areas,” MV Ramana, CEO, branded markets (India and emerging markets) of Dr Reddy’s, told Financial Express. According to Edelweiss, Dr Reddy’s, the largest foreign player in China, is poised to benefit from regulatory changes in the country. Dr Reddy’s plans to launch about 60 products and improve revenue significantly over the next seven to eight years, according to the report. PixabayThe company’s strong local partnerships have helped it commercialise some of the imported brands, the report says. The company’s revenue in FY18 was $100 million, with the help of its Canada-based joint venture Kunshan Rotam Reddy.”The size and growth of the market, our long presence and also the recent changes in China’s regulatory framework make this an attractive space for Dr Reddy’s. In terms of market size and expanded generic opportunity, China is the second largest pharma market with $130 billion in size, and generics form 65 per cent of the hospital market. About 22 per cent of the market is with off-patent innovators. While shortening the market access and reimbursement timelines for innovative drugs, China intends to replace the off-patent innovators with high-quality generics that opens up this share of the market to generic firms,” Ramana said.Dr Reddy’s US/EU portfolio mostly comply with Chinese regulations, while additional China-specific studies might be required in the case of some. “While in the past five years, we have had some good pipeline of filings, the plan is to scale this up and file a good number of dossiers in next few years,” he said.The Edelweiss report states that a growing Chinese pharma market and a relaxed Chinese drug regulator, CFDA, are likely to attract many Indian generic players. The relaxed norms may allow Indian companies to file their USFDA-approved products in China and get CFDA approval within months in the normal course. Among the drugs in demand, the most prominent are those for obesity, diabetes, respiratory illness and cancer.”While the regulations have been aligned with International Council of Harmonisation (ICH), there are China-specific requirements, which could pose challenges. Dr Reddy’s will continue to work to build strong regulatory capability and build on our experience to increase the probability of success for any new filing,” the report quoted Ramana as saying.last_img read more

Executive magistrates to run mobile court till 10 October

first_imgExecutive magistrates will be able to run mobile courts in the country till 10 October as the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court on Wednesday adjourned the matter till that day, reports BSS.”Mobile courts run by executive magistrate will remain adjourned till 10 October,” said the apex court full bench headed by Chief Justice Surendra Kumar Sinha.The Appellate Division came up with the order accepting a time plea from the state.Earlier on 1 August, the apex court had allowed the state two weeks to run mobile courts by the executive magistrates.The Appellate Division on 4 July had extended for two more weeks its stay on the High Court order that declared illegal the running of mobile courts by executive magistrates.Earlier on 21 May, the apex court extended the stay for the first time till 2 July. The chamber judge of the Appellate Division on 14 May stayed the High Court order on 21 May, sending the matter to Appellate Division’s regular bench for further hearing.On 11 May, the High Court passed the initial order, pronouncing some 14 sections and sub-sections of the concerned act unconstitutional.A High Court division bench comprising justice Moyeenul Islam Chowdhury and justice Ashish Ranjan Das passed the order, declaring absolute the rule issued earlier in this regard.The court came up with the order after holding hearing on writ petitions filed by three people who were earlier convicted by mobile courts.”The court ordered to cancel their sentences and refund Tk 1000000 realised from one of them as fine within 90-day of receiving the copy of this judgment,” Barrister Hassan MS Azim, counsel for the petitioners, told the newsmen on that day.”From now on, the government cannot run mobile courts by executive magistrates. The government has to amend the law or formulate a new law if it wants to run mobile courts,” he had added.last_img read more

25 missing as 3 launches capsize in Padma

first_imgAround 25 people went missing as three launches capsized in Padma river near WAPDA launch terminal of Naria in Shariatpur on Monday.The incident took place around 5:00am, leaseholder of the terminal Motahar Shikari told Prothom Alo.A total of five launches were anchored in a BIWTC pontoon of the terminal. All of a sudden at dawn, the pontoon ripped from its moorings in erosion and powerful waves, leading capsize of the three launches in the Padma river, added Motahar Shikari. Around 25 workers, who were sleeping in the capsized launches, went missing, he went on saying.The launches are Mouchak-4, Mahanagari, and Naria-1. On information, fire service rescuers reached the spot and were preparing to conduct a search operation, said Naria police station officer in-charge, Aslamuddin.Divers from Fire Brigade and Civil Defence and Bangladesh Navy were also informed to reach the spot, the OC added.last_img read more

Anger over Harvey May Not Carry Through to Midterms

first_imgThere are still voters around Houston who were directly affected by Harvey and who haven’t yet recovered. Rice University political scientist Mark Jones said they’re likely to have a bad taste in their mouth toward all incumbents. But he said that, at this point, most voters are more fatalistic than angry, seeing little that any one politician can do against flooding.“So if Democrats such as Lizzie Fletcher and Lina Hidalgo were thinking that they’d be able to capitalize on Harvey to win votes in the Houston metro region,” Jones said, “they’re likely to find themselves being very disappointed.”Fletcher has made Harvey one of the central issues in her campaign against Republican incumbent Congressman John Culberson. Hidalgo is running against Harris County Judge Ed Emmett. Jones said that Emmett won high marks for his handling of the storm and that, if anything, Harvey is likely to work in his favor. X To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: Listen Sharecenter_img 00:00 /00:53 Texas Military DepartmentTexas National Guard troops help rescue people from flooded homes in Houston during Hurricane Harvey.Numerous Houston-area Democrats running for office this year are blaming incumbent Republicans for the slow pace of action on Harvey relief and flood mitigation. It looked like a winning strategy in the months after the storm. Now, it’s beginning to look like a miscalculation. last_img read more

The dynamic cytoskeleton in bacterial cell division

first_img(Phys.org) —The cytoskeletal proteins of eukaryotes polymerize into self-organized patterns even as pure solutions. However, to see more complex dynamics, like filament sliding or rotation, various motor proteins and cofactors usually need to be added to the solution. The ancestral bacterial proteins of actin and tubulin, namely FtsA and FtsZ, play a key role in bacterial cell division through the formation of a cytoskeletal structure known as the “Z” ring. Researchers Martin Loose and Tim Mitchison have studied these bacterial proteins in solution, along with bits of reconstituted membrane, and found that they support complex dynamics in the absence of any motor proteins. In their recent paper in Nature Cell Biology, they describe how these behaviors can spontaneously emerge. Cytoskeletal Ring Formation. Credit: labs.cellbio.duke.edu More information: The bacterial cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ self-organize into dynamic cytoskeletal patterns, Nature Cell Biology (2013) DOI: 10.1038/ncb2885AbstractBacterial cytokinesis is commonly initiated by the Z-ring, a cytoskeletal structure that assembles at the site of division. Its primary component is FtsZ, a tubulin superfamily GTPase, which is recruited to the membrane by the actin-related protein FtsA. Both proteins are required for the formation of the Z-ring, but if and how they influence each other’s assembly dynamics is not known. Here, we reconstituted FtsA-dependent recruitment of FtsZ polymers to supported membranes, where both proteins self-organize into complex patterns, such as fast-moving filament bundles and chirally rotating rings. Using fluorescence microscopy and biochemical perturbations, we found that these large-scale rearrangements of FtsZ emerge from its polymerization dynamics and a dual, antagonistic role of FtsA: recruitment of FtsZ filaments to the membrane and negative regulation of FtsZ organization. Our findings provide a model for the initial steps of bacterial cell division and illustrate how dynamic polymers can self-organize into large-scale structures. Citation: The dynamic cytoskeleton in bacterial cell division (2013, December 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-dynamic-cytoskeleton-bacterial-cell-division.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img The researchers studied a lipid bilayer preparation in which FtsA protein was readily attached through a special helix found at its carboxy terminus. When GTP was added, they found that the FtsZ was recruited to the membrane region, and was rapidly polymerized. After a critical density was reached, motile streams were seen moving in a single predominate direction, with complex rotating vortices found between them. The structures would persist for tens of minutes and rotated at speed of up to 11 degrees per second. While their system did not have all the components normally found in bacterial cells, the researchers noted that the vortices were reminiscent of the helical patterns seen during Z-ring assembly in E.coli and Bacillus subtilis. The formation of the patterns required the addition of ATP. The researchers found that no ATPase activity was present, and subsitution with ADP worked just as well. On the other hand, GTP was found to be hydrolyzed in the process, and only static filament bundles were formed when it was prevented.The researchers observed that the swirls had a preferred directionality. They explained this chirality as a result of polar molecules attaching to a single face of the bilayer, combined with the effects of bundling and treadmilling in curved FtsZ filaments. They also note that the attachment of enzymes to the Z-ring could occur in a spatially organized fashion with the predominate force for inward growth in cell division arising from bond formation during cell wall biosynthesis.The larger question of asymmetry in cells often escapes everyday notice. Neurons, in particular, are highly polarized with the axon defining a principle direction. Yet very little in terms of neuronal function has been ascribed to any particular handedness. As mentioned previously, one issue which might be further explored in this vein would be orientation specific effects felt beyond the immediate cell, like the direction of glial wrapping, for example. Other possible effects like rotation of free microtubules as a result of the directed transport of various cargo have scarcely been studied, but could have interesting implications for the organization of cells. Simulation, like one recent model exploring the role of the GTP cap region in microtubule dynamics, will be an important compliment to these kinds of in-vitro experiments. The study of the intrinsic pattern formation capability of more primitive cytoskeletal proteins will lead to greater understanding of the functions of their diverse, and uniquely optimized descendants found today in eukaryotic cells. Journal information: Nature Cell Biology Scientists deconstruct process of bacterial division © 2013 Phys.orglast_img read more