Scientists at Harvard have created breathtaking 3-D images of an entire organ, moving a step closer to understanding the complex development of the kidney. Their work provides a detailed view of the intricate structure of the kidney and its intertwined tubules.The pictures, one of which won a 2011 Wellcome Image Award for microscope images, are as striking as they are informative. The kidney appears suspended, pink and green against a black backdrop, with all the varied texture of a macroscopic picture. The surface appears covered in raised horseshoes of green, representing the cap mesenchyme. Under it, the characteristic lima bean shape of the kidney is a stringy mass of bubblegum-pink tissue.Bob Kao, a graduate student in the laboratory of Andrew McMahon in the departments of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, is one of the scientists behind the project. He recently traveled to London to receive the team’s Wellcome Image Award, an honor bestowed annually by the Wellcome Trust in recognition of striking, informative, and technically excellent images.Kao says the gorgeous surface image is just the beginning of what this approach to tissue imaging can offer.“We have just an immense amount of data contained in these images,” he explains. “The still picture is beautiful, but if you put a series of pictures together you get a video, and that can tell you a lot.”This is just what Kao’s colleague Kieran Short, a postdoctoral fellow in Ian Smyth’s laboratory at Monash University in Australia, has done. Working with Kao, he has compiled the images of fetal kidneys into short videos that include a cellular view of the intricate tubules inside the organ.The imaging technique Kao and his collaborators used, called optical projection tomography (OPT), allows scientists to see the structures deep within the kidney with astonishing clarity. Instead of using sliced-up tissue, fluorescently labeled kidneys are left intact and are imaged from all sides to create a three-dimensional picture.The image depicts a detail from a 3-D model of a developing mouse kidney. The collecting duct system and renal pelvis are shown in red, surrounded by mesenchymal connective tissue in green. Credit: Ian Smyth, Monash University/Wellcome Images“These renal structures are just minuscule — at least 500 times smaller than a penny,” explains Kao.The horseshoe-shaped structures on the surface of the kidney, known as the cap mesenchyme, contains progenitor cells that give rise to the nephron precursor known as the renal vesicle. The renal vesicle undergoes complex morphological changes to form the nephron — the filtration unit of the kidney. Each cap mesenchyme is just 130 to 230 micrometers in length but appears in high resolution from many angles, thanks to the layering of OPT images.For the kidney, with its scaffold structure and varied cell types, this type of imaging can be a very powerful tool. Being able to image the tissue at different stages of development will allow scientists to tease apart how such a complex organ develops.The next step will be to merge the cellular understanding of how shape changes during development with genetic information about the same tissues.“We can integrate our visual foundation with the genetic specifics to create an even more complete picture of how kidneys develop,” says Kao.
Have we over reacted to concussions in every level of sports? I am not in any way questioning the need for quick and complete care for anyone who suffers a concussion. I think the problem has become that all hits on the field of play now are considered concussions. I am not advocating going back to the old football saying “he just got his bell rung”, but is it necessary to keep a student athlete from attending school for 3 weeks after a concussion? Yes, it is, if it is truly a concussion. I understand they now are not allowed to use computers during this concussion recovery time which makes it difficult for them to keep up with their studies. I am sure that the medical field is just as perplexed as the rest of us because if they decide a bump on the head is not serious and some kind of delayed reaction occurs, the legal ramifications would get out of hand quickly. Herein lies the dilemma. Have they given the medical personnel a concrete set of guidelines for them to follow or is it left up to the individual person to decide? Again I stress, I do not want any athlete on the field if they have any form of concussion. We don’t need all of the complications that seem to have cropped up after years of not taking concussions seriously. One of the solutions might be to add helmets to more sports than football. Soccer and pole vaulting are two of the areas I think consideration for the helmet must be given. We still want kids to want to play and not be afraid that serious health problems will occur if they do get hit. Another solution might be to delay some sports until the kids are a little older and a little more coordinated. I certainly do not have all the answers.
David Moyes jokingly suggested Ryan Giggs’ Manchester United team-mates might be trying to usher him out of the players’ dressing room by buying him a coach’s watch for his 40th birthday. Press Association And given Giggs’ outstanding contribution to Wednesday’s 5-0 hammering of Bayer Leverkusen, it is unlikely the United squad would want to be without the man who has now played an incredible 953 games for the Red Devils. “When I came I expected to see someone who must be dropping off, must be fading,” said Moyes. “I thought it would be obvious and I heard a lot of pundits thinking that as well. “I came with the idea that maybe he is not quite the same. “But I can honestly say he has been fantastic. “For Ryan to be playing so well at his age is terrific and a great example to young players about how you should dedicate yourself throughout your career. “Also to players who get into their early to mid-30s and think things are coming to an end it shows if you really look after yourself and train well, you can go on for a lot longer.” One of Moyes’ first decisions after replacing Sir Alex Ferguson in the summer was to appoint Giggs to his coaching team. He does make a contribution behind the scenes. But once training starts, he is in the thick of it, not on the outside watching, exactly as it has to be. “When you get older you have to train as hard as the young ones,” said Moyes. “He has been great for me. I have used him to settle into my job. “He is involved in all the stuff we do regarding the team but once we have decided what we are doing, and who is doing what, he will go and train with the players, just as he has done for the past 20 years.” In his wide-ranging discussions with Ferguson before his own appointment was confirmed, it was suggested to Moyes that Giggs would come into his own a few months into the campaign, when the pitches became softer. It was a point reinforced by the man himself on his first encounter with Moyes in the summer. The reality turned into something completely different. “I knew Ryan would be the dictator of it,” said Moyes. “He said he took a bit longer to get ready and didn’t tend to start the season. “But he played a lot of pre-season. I felt he was ready to start and we needed him. He has shown he was capable of that.” Giggs’ overall contribution has been remarkable. He may still be waiting for the Premier League goal that would extend his record of scoring in every season the competition has existed but few would bet against it happening at some point. And Giggs remains the man most likely to keep his cool in the maelstrom of an important game and deliver the right pass at exactly the right time. “We always have a discussion about when is the best time to use him and we also get a feel from him,” said Moyes. “Last Saturday, before we went to Cardiff, he was fantastic in training and if I had my way I would have played him. “One of his presents was a coach’s watch – I think they are beginning to think about pushing him out of the dressing room. “It is not a problem for him to play in two or three games but I had it in my mind Marouane Fellaini was suspended for the European game and I didn’t want to risk Ryan so quickly.” That suggests Giggs will not start at Tottenham on Sunday at the White Hart Lane ground where he confirmed his class with a sensational solo goal in 1992, when he was only 18. He has gone on to become the most decorated player in English football history, setting records it is impossible to imagine will ever be matched. “He’s undoubtedly at the top,” said Moyes, of Giggs’ standing in the modern game. And as for the future, bearing in mind speculation is already starting over an additional year’s contract extension. “When you get to this age you wait until the end of the season before making a decision,” said Moyes. “It is based on how you feel, how you have done over the year and what your body is telling you. “There are no quick decisions.” The Scot also admitted when he arrived at Old Trafford he expected to find a fading force in the veteran Welshman, no longer capable of having an impact, as so many critics have suggested down the years. Moyes accepts he could not have been more wrong.
The Olympic Hall Zetra will get an ice rink once again after five years.The rink was set on Saturday, and the preparations for the large hockey spectacle at the beginning of January 2014 will continue in the upcoming days.The Sarajevo public will get the chance to once again watch ice hockey on 10 January, where the first opponents of the hosts from Slovenia in Sarajevo will be the Austrian VSV from Vilach. Two days later, the Slovenian team Olimpija will play against the current champion of KAC league from Klagenfurt, announced the B&H Hockey Association.(Source: Fena)